Case Study of Cartis India Survey on the Right to Education in Bihar: A Booklet

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Development of any society, state or country depends upon the education policy adopted by it and the most important role is played by Primary education. This is very appreciable that in last few years’ major steps has been taken by you for better implementation of primary education and it will continue in future. In this regard I would like to make you aware that in past few years Caritas India is working with poor and marginalized community in different state on issues like Right to Education and . In, addition to this People vigilance committee on human rights (PVCHR) is working rigorously in Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand on the issues of Human Rights and from last few years. The Organization is also providing training and to different organization in 17 states of the country on the issue of Human Rights and .

Caritas India with PVCHR would like to add innovative ideas and how to improve the quality education in line with commendable work done by the government of Bihar. We have taken efforts by collecting primary data from the field based on Right to Education parameter in primary education system. An Affirmative report is an outcome, which is being shared with the policy makers of State government with a positive attitude to support the progress work done by the government in the direction of right to education. Similarly, by implementing Right to Education Act 2009 strongly at grass root level it will also be an example for the other states.

Under the direction of Mr. Girish Peter and coordination of Ms. Rubina Tabassum – with the joint effort Mr. Lenin Raghuvanshi, Ms. Shabana Khan, Mr. Anup Kumar Shivastav of People Vigilance committee on Human Rights, Student of Kashi Vidyapeeth Mr. Pawan Kumar Upadhaya and Mr. Uday Kumar & Atul Kumar from DASHRA, this report is being presented.

We expect that on the basis of this report you will take effort for tactical changes in the implementation of Right to Education in the state.

Sd/-
Fr. Frederick D’Souza
Executive Director, Caritas India,
CBCI Centre, 1 Ashok Place, New Delhi – 110001

#WorldDayAgainstChildLabour2016  #WorldDayAgainstChildLabour  #WDACL #ILO #EducationinBihar

 

Status of Education in Bihar

A Concept:

Education is the key element for the development of a human being, it is not possible to unveil all the truths of life without education. Education consist that basic instinct that allows a human to learn the skill how to speak, live and establish himself/herself in the society. Only through education it is possible to bring respect, awareness and social onus herself a person. Again education is only a property that increases by sharing and passes on generation to generation. Many Scholars have given different definition for education some of them are as stated:-

According to Fable: Education is a process through which a child can develop his/her own powers.

According to Swami Vivekananda it is an implicit way to express oneself as whole.

According to Mahatma Gandhi: Education is a purpose for the development of a child or human’s body, mind and soul completely and it is the highest form of development.

According to Aristotle: To develop healthy mind in healthy body is only education.

According to Pastelis: The natural and in coordination progressive development of the internal power of human being is called education

According to Herbert Spencer: To synthesize between the internal power and the external factors is called education.

As above statements we can conclude that education is a process used to nurture and develop the internal powers of a boy or human being.

A Concept of School Education

School is as a place where different activities are organized through which a child’s physical, mental, social development takes place. School gives education a formal shape in the society. There are certain rules and regulations mandatory for the smooth functioning of education on the basis on which the school education is presently running in the country. School is a center which enables a child to learn the skill from being dependent to independent in his/her life since to adulthood. (Premi, 2014)

In Context of Bihar

In terms of educational background, Bihar is a state having a very rich history with famous educational hub Nalanda University, Bihar has also produced many scholars that adds to is a glorious treasure of Bihar, but the present situation contradicts, as the statistic of the country shows that the state is having the lowest literacy rate in the country. The most important indicator for development of any state is its educational status esp. of “children-future of the country”. On the status of education of the state Abu’l –Fazl ibn Mubarak has written in his book “Ain-i Akbari” defining high quality of education in the state (Rajgir) (P.Ghosh, 2011) implies that number good students , writers and scholars were in the state. Gradually, the state started declining on educational front and it became a state with the lowest literacy rate in the country. According to the National Literacy Mission the literacy rate of the country which is 74.0% against which Bihar is having literacy of 63.8%, which is very low in comparison of other states in the country. If we compare the difference between male and female literacy we find a wide gap of 19.2%(Male 73.4%, Female 54.5%).There is a ray of hope of amelioration in education sector in Bihar .Present, State Government has also take some affirmative action in this direction but due to political advantages it is not yet successful. Different schemes that are launched for primary and secondary education are less on grassroots level and more on files of secretariat.

Social and Educational Status of Bihar

Table No 1

Approximate Population 10.41 Crores 8.30 Crore
Actual Population 104,099,452 82,998,509
Male 54,278,157 43,243,795
Female 49,821,295 39,754,714
Population Growth 25.42% 28.43%
Percantage of total Population 8.60% 8.07%
Sex Ratio 918 919
Child Sex Ratio 935 942
Density/km2 1,106 881
Density/mi2 2,863 2,283
Area(Km2) 94,163 94,163
Area mi2 36,357 36,357
Total Child Population (0-6 Age) 19,133,964 16,806,063
Male Population (0-6 Age) 9,887,239 8,652,705
Female Population (0-6 Age) 9,246,725 8,153,358
Literacy 61.80 % 47.00 %
Male Literacy 71.20 % 59.68 %
Female Literacy 51.50 % 33.12 %
Total Literate 52,504,553 31,109,577
Male Literate 31,608,023 20,644,376
Female Literate 20,896,530 10,465,201

It is clear from the above given table No. 1 and chart Nos. 1 & 2 that the population of Bihar was 82,998,509, in 2001, which increased to 104,099,452, in 2011, with the rate of 25.42% , less in comparison to 2001.The representation of Bihar’s population in country’s population is 8.60%. If we discuss about the settlement of the population we find that 11.29% population is settled in urban areas, while 88.70% is still resides in rural areas.

Table No. 2

Status of Education in Bihar (according to Census 2011)

Comparative Chart No. 3

Chart of status of Bihar

Literacy Rate from 1951~2001 in Bihar
Year Total Males Females
1951 13.49 22.68 4.22
1961 21.95 35.85 8.11
1971 23.17 35.86 9.86
1981 32.32 47.11 16.61
1991 37.49 51.37 21.99
2001 47.53 60.32 33.57
2011 71.82 75.79 68.33

 

Chart of Education Status in India

Comparative Chart No. 4

Chart of Education Status in India 

If we talk about the status of education of Bihar it is very clear from table No. 2 and chart No 2 & 3 that the literacy rate of Bihar is 63.8%, while the literacy rate of the country is 74.0%, which is 10.2% low. The male literacy rate is 73.40%, while the female literacy rate is 53.30%, the gap is around 20.1%, which is a big question mark for the government as well as people of Bihar. The affirmative point is the growth of literacy rate in Bihar in 2001-2011, which is around 16.6%, which is 8.6% more that the decade growth of literacy rate of the country.

Bihar is divided in nine divisions in terms of education which includes 38 districts. If we talk about education status of districts of Bihar then Rohtas is having highest literacy rate with 75.6% in which male literacy rate is 85.3% and female literacy rate is 65.0%. On the other hand, the district with lowest literacy rate district is Purnea with 52.5% in which male literacy rate is 61.1% and female literacy rate is 43.2%.

Table No 5.

Literacy in Bihar
Districts of Bihar 1991
(Total)
2001
(Total)
1991
(Male)
2001
(Male)
1991
(Female)
2001
(Female)
West Champaran 27.99 39.63 39.62 51.91 14.41 25.85
East Champaran 27.59 38.14 39.65 50.14 13.69 24.65
Sheohar 26.18 37.01 36.36 45.54 14.34 27.43
Sitamarhi 28.49 39.38 39.86 51.02 15.49 26.35
Madhubani 33.22 42.35 48.49 57.26 16.75 26.56
Supaul 28.11 37.8 40.96 53.23 13.74 21.02
Araria 26.19 34.94 36.99 46.5 14.01 22.14
Kishanganj 22.22 31.02 33.12 42.8 10.38 18.49
Purnia 28.52 35.51 38.92 46.16 16.8 23.72
Katihar 28.7 35.29 39.24 45.51 16.88 24.03
Madhepura 27.72 36.19 39.31 48.87 14.41 22.31
Saharsa 29.98 39.28 42.37 52.04 15.83 25.31
Darbhanga 34.94 44.32 48.31 57.18 20.09 30.35
Muzaffarpur 36.11 48.15 48.44 60.19 22.33 35.2
Gopalganj 34.96 48.19 51.62 63.81 17.75 32.81
Siwan district 39.13 52.01 57.51 67.67 21.33 37.26
Saran 41.79 52.01 60.18 67.81 22.71 35.74
Vaishali 40.56 51.63 55.62 64 24.08 38.14
Samastipur 36.37 45.76 50.39 57.83 21.17 32.69
Begusarai 36.88 48.55 48.66 59.71 23.52 36.21
Khagaria 32.33 41.56 42.97 52.02 19.79 29.62
Bhagalpur 41.84 50.28 53.41 60.11 28.11 38.83
Banka 34.55 43.4 48.17 56.28 18.99 29.1
Munger 52.25 60.11 64.95 70.68 37.07 47.97
Lakhisarai 39.4 48.21 53.12 60.97 23.48 34.26
Sheikhpura 40.92 49.01 55.43 62.56 24.41 34.13
Nalanda 46.95 53.64 61.95 66.94 29.97 39.03
Patna 56.33 63.82 69.07 73.81 41.35 52.17
Bhojpur 48.18 59.71 66.35 74.78 27.95 42.81
Buxar 33.49 57.49 62.94 72.82 25.74 40.36
Kaimur 39.35 55.57 55.68 70.57 20.69 38.9
Rohtas 48.52 62.36 64.5 76.54 30.29 46.62
Jehanabad 45.83 56.03 63.11 70.9 26.81 40.08
Aurangabad 45.14 57.5 61.8 71.99 26.67 42.04
Gaya 50.47 61.07 65.22 73.81 34.2 47.4
Nawada 38.96 47.36 54.85 61.22 21.82 32.64
Jamui 33.41 42.74 48.48 57.1 16.41 26.92

District wise literary chart of Bihar

 

Leading Programme in the State to Raise the Status of Education

Sarv Siksha Abhiyan:

The State is implementing Sarv Siksha Abhiyan since 2000-2001 with the objective of universalized availability and retention of primary education, reducing gender gap and social stratum and to increase the quality of learning with various interventions and opening new schools with optional facilities, increasing number of classes in schools with drinking water and toilet facilities, availability of teachers, Training of regular teachers and providing academic resources to the teachers. To provide free books and school uniforms and support in learning level/result progress is included in this programme. Under the Education Campaign vision strategy and parameters -vision of primary education is also included.

That is based on the following principles:

National curriculum structure, 2005 defines the vision of education and curriculum of teacher education, educational schemes and management implication, educational tools and educational process in serial wise implication.

Equality does not only means to provide equal opportunity but to create such opportunities that the marginalized groups of the society-SC, ST, Muslim Minority , Landless laborer’s children and children also gets benefit from opportunity.

The whole thought process is that it is not only to determine that children from a limited periphery are able to reach school but also understanding the needs and conditions of socially excluded groups like SC, ST, Muslim Minority, marginalized groups children especially girls child and differently able child.

Male and Female child concept, is not only to bring equality among boys and girls but also to purview education under the National Policy on Education 1986/92 and interfere to make basic changes in the situation of woman.

To make innovative changes in class and promotion for creation of traditional environment out of class. Teacher’s concentration must be on such kind of students, who have been abused or girls belonging to neglected background and create an inclusive environment for them.

Through RTE Act moral barriers should be put on parents, teachers, academic administrator and other stakeholder instead of legal punishment procedure.

Convergence of educational management and collective system was expected for implementation of RTE Act and all states have to move with the high speed in same direction.(http://mhrd.gov.in)

Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative Education:

EGS and AIE are an important component SSA to bring out of school children in the fold of elementary education. The scheme envisage that child wise planning is undertaken for each out of school

Mid-Day Meal Scheme:

With a view to enhancing enrolment, retention and attendance and simultaneously improving the nutritional level among the children the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP- NSPE) was launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme on August 15, 1995.

In 2001, MDMS became a cooked Mid-Day Meal Scheme, under which every child in every Government and Government aided primary school was to be served a prepared Mid-Day Meal with a minimum content of 300 calories of energy and 8-12 grams protein per day for a minimum of 200 days. The scheme was further extended, in 2002, to cover not only children studying in Government, Government aided and local body schools, but also children studying under Educational Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and Alternative and Innovative Education (AIE) Centers.

In October 2007, the scheme was extended to cover the children of upper primary classes(i.e. class VI to VII) studying in 3,479 Educationally Backward Blocks(EBB) and the name of the Scheme was changed from ‘National Programme for Nutritional Support to Primary Education ‘ to ‘ National Programme of Mid-Day Meals in Schools’. The nutritional norms of upper primary stage was fixed at 700 calories and 20 gram of Protein .The scheme was extended to all areas across the country from 1.4.2008. The Scheme was further revised in April 2008 to extend the scheme to recognize as unrecognized Madarsas/Maqtabs supported under SSA. (http://mhrd.gov.in/hi/mid-day-meal)

District Primary Education Programme (DPEP):

The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched in 1994 as a major initiatives to revitalize the primary education system and to achieve the objective of universalisation of primary education.

Prarambhik Siksha Kosh:

To maintain the quality of basic education, to financially support Government the imposition of educational cess @ 2 % on all major central taxes through the Finance (No.2) Act, 2004, Prarambhi Sihksha Kosh (PSK) has been established with the effect from 14.11.2005 as a dedicated non-lapsable fund to receive the proceeds of the cess.

Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidhyalaya (KGBV):

Under the Scheme of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidhyalaya to provide educational facility for girls belonging to Schedule Caste, Schedule Tribes and other backward classes, Minority communities and family below the poverty line in backward blocks. Around 750 schools are being opened for girls with residential facility in outskirts. (https://hi.wikibooks.org)

Right to Education

The constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children’s in the age of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine. The Right of Children for Free and compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential envisaged under Article 21-A means that every child has a Right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal schools which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A the RTE Act came into effect on April 1, 2010. The title of RTE Act incorporates the ‘Free and Compulsory’. ‘Free Education’ means that no child other than the child who has been admitted by his or her parents to the school which is not supported by the appropriate Government ,shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charge or expenses which may prevent him or her from perusing and completing elementary education. ‘Compulsory Education’ casts a legal obligation on the Central and the State Governments to implement this fundamental child rights as enshrined in the Article-21A of the constitution, in accordance with the provision of RTE Act.

The RTE Act provides for:

Right to Education to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighborhood school.

It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate government to provide the free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no child will be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from completing Primary education.

It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class

It specifies the duties and the responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and the State Governments.

It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher ratio, buildings and infrastructure, school working days, teacher- working hours.

It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher tas
ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Blocks, thus ensuring that there is no urban rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, election to local authority state legislature and parliament and disaster relief.

It provides for appointment of approximately trained teachers, i.e. teacher with the requisite entry and academics qualifications.

It prohibits (a) Physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedure for admission of children; (c) caption fee; (d) private tuitions by teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition.

It provides development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-around development of the child, building on the child knowledge potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child learning environment. (http://mhrd.gov.in/hi/rte)

Bihar Government Education Programme

1. To enroll all students between age six to fourteen and especially students those who are out of schools is an important achievement. In 2005, 12.5 % students were out of school, which has reduced to 1.72%. In this time period 21,087 new primary schools have been open and 19,581 primary schools have been upgraded to Middle schools.

2. Pupil Student ratio in State and student-classroom ratio has been increased under RTE Act by appointing new teachers and building new classrooms.

3. To provide free uniform to the students from class 1-8 in the State, with the aim Mukhyia Mantri Poshak Yojna, under which free uniforms are provided to all students from class 1-8.Besides, this students are being provided free Book from their schools.

4. Mukhyia Mantari Sakshnik Bhraman Yojna: This scheme is being run since 2007, under which there is a provision to spend Rs.20,000/- for educational trip of students in the state.

5. Scholarship scheme is being run for girl’s students of general class, while for students from SC, ST, OBC and EBC class scholarship is being provided.

6. To build government school and to extend present government school 11,076 school buildings have being constructed and 3,806 schools are under construction.

7. From 2005 till date 13, 592 hand pumps have been installed and 162 are under construction

8. In year 2005, total number of teachers were 20,734, which has increased, in 2015, to 42,689.

9. In year, 2005 number of toilets were 18,785, while number of toilets for girls were 6,334, which has increased, in 2015, to 55,919 and 53,730 respectively.

10. Mission Gunvakta- To increase the quality of education in primary education , skill development and providing vocational training ,expansion of work plan and implementation of Mission Gunvakta has been started for primary education (httpwww.prdbihar.in)

A report by Government and Non- government Organisation

A NGO formed by Nobel Prize winner, Prof. Amrayta Sen (Economist of India) – Pritichi Trust and Adri a Patna based organisation did a survey last year in 30 villages of five districts of Bihar and presented a report at Patna according to which the unavailability of teachers and school buildings are the biggest hurdle in the progress of primary and secondary education in Bihar. It has been clearly mentioned in the report that the level of teaching by teachers and learning by student is still very low in Bihar as compared to other state in the country but due to some major steps taken by the government for primary education, interest of the public is increased towards education. The report was of 76 pages full of informative statistics but emphasis was given on four major points:

1. First point was the lack of basic infrastructure of government primary and secondary school, which has led to weak education status of schools.

2. Second point, there is a lack of teacher and trained teachers and most of the time appointed teachers are found to be absent.

3. Lack of government evaluation system and school management committee which is responsible for monitoring school progress is considered the third most important point.

4. Fourth point which was emphasized was the quality of education provided by the teachers and the quality of learning of student which is very poor.

Positive Points Highlighted in the Report:

Prof. Amratya Sen has praised all the efforts taken by the present state government due to which the interest of school going students has increased. For this reason he has appreciated Nitish Kumar for his efforts and considered his steps to be different and useful then earlier State Governments.

In census 2011, the rate of literacy in Bihar is considered to be 17% more that last decade literacy rate which is a good sign, but again besides, a high literacy rate Bihar is having lowest literacy rate in the country with 63.8%. In this report it has been advised that the State Government can work on Adult education especially, on women education and can instigate the village mentality towards primary education. (http://www.bbc.com)

Table No. 6

According to the Report of Aser

According to Aser report the rate of enrollment of school students(6-14)in Bihar is 95.9%out of which 82.4% are in government schools, 12.5% in Private schools and 1.5% in other schools (like Madarsa and E.G.S)and 4.1% children those who have never been to school. Rate of enrollment in primary schools as well as pre secondary school is almost equal but the rate of enrollment of 15-16 years students is very low at the same time the rate of dropout is very high. In this age bracket around 77.4% students are enrolled in government schools 5.5% in private and 0.8% are enrolled in other schools, while 16.3% children never go to school out of which girls (15.6%) and boys (17%). Boys are more in numbers than girls in category of not going to schools.

From class 1 to 8, there are 23.7% students who cannot read alphabets, while 18.6 % students can only read alphabet. 10.1% students can read words and 10.10 % students can read book up to class 1 and 37.6% students can read books up to class 2 and 62.4% students cannot read books at all.

In case of mathematics the report reveals that 16.1% students of class 1to 8 are not aware of numeric 1-9, 23.3 % students are having knowledge of numeric 1-9 and

20% students are having knowledge of numeric 1-100. 14% students can do subtraction and 26.7% students can perform division task. According to the report the status of private schools in Bihar is far better than the government schools.

If we discuss about English literature according to Aser report around 33.8% student of 1-8 standard are not having knowledge of alphabets of English language.11.3% students are having knowledge of capital alphabets of English while 18% students are having knowledge of small alphabets.19.3% students can read common words of English while 17.6% students can form simple sentences.

Standard 1-5, 45.3% government school students does not takes tuition, while 41.5% government school students takes tuitions. From class 6-8 35.4% government school students does not takes tuition while 57.7% government school students takes tuitions.

According to the report of Aser approx. 12.7% of schools are having good teacher-pupil ratio, which in turn means that in 87% schools teacher-student ratio is not good. In 39.5% schools teacher-classroom ratio is not good. In 33% school there is no provision of toilets. In 25.4% schools there is no provision of separate toilets for girls. 23.7% schools are not having library and in 45.8 % school consist of library but not in use.

According to National Achievement Survey (NAS):

In the schools of Bihar (Std.1- Std.8) there is a participation of 52% male students and 48% female students. In schools around 9% students come from urban area while 91% students come from rural areas. At national level this statistics is 22% from urban area and 78% from rural areas.

If we talk in term of education level of parents around 29% parents are uneducated while 32% parents have attained primary educated, 22% parents got secondary education 9% parents have received high education and 7% parents are having higher level education.

In terms of teacher-student ratio, in Bihar there is one teacher on more than 40 students and the ratio is around 82%, while at national level this ratio is 29%.This student teacher ratio of Bihar is far away from the yardstick of Right to Education Act. (httpmhrd.gov.inhisitesupload)

According to one more report there is no secondary school in more than 5500 gram panchayat in Bihar. While Bihar is having more than 8400 gram panchayats. This means that around 65% gram panchayats are not having any secondary schools. The truth that confronts that Central Government is providing crores and crores of funds to State Government under Sarva Sikhsha Abhiyan and Rashtriya Madhyamik Sikhsha Abhiyan (RMSA).Under RMSA 949 schools of the state will be developed. Central government has made a target to open a school in the circumference of 5 kilometers under RMSA .Bihar is far away for these targets. (https://www.facebook.com/alokkumar.)

Roshini Intiative of Caritas in Bihar

Caritas has taken initiatives to work for education empowerment of Musahar girls in Musahar dominated area of three districts of Bihar: Purnea, Munger and Madhubani by providing complementary education centers in 10 villages of each district. These centers work as support classes for students going to school. As illiteracy is high so, there is no importance to education and the home environment does not support a education. Child marriage is prevalent and best age for girl’s marriage is considered from 11-14 years. Government school are setup in the area but parents hardly care for the type of Education and facility their wards are getting.

Education Empowerment of Musahar Project is Working with Three Major Objectives:

1) Enrollment of Musahar children up to the age of 14 in local government school to fulfilling the Right to Education Act, 2010, this not only contains enrollment of new students to the primary and middle school but also re-enrollment of dropouts , ensuring their compulsory attendance and completion of elementary education.

2) Sensitisation and awareness building of Stakeholders about importance of education and especially female education by developing the capacity of communities and schools to address the constraints to Musahar children in accessing educational opportunities and promote to improve the quality and cultural appropriateness of the education provided through the schools.

3) Ensuring implementation of RTE norm in the selected school of the Project Districts. Besides, enrollment up to age of 14 all other facilities entitled to students must be ensured like midday meals, scholarships, uniform, books, etc.

Major Strategies Used to Reach Objectives of the Project:

Behavioural Communication Change: Roshni is not an overnight dream came true but it is a lamp burnt for several nights. It is not an easy task for any project to intervene a new area with a new concept, for this you require support and trust of people. People who are facing discrimination and humiliation since their birth to talk to them about their development or betterment is just like a mirage in desert. In such circumstances to start a project with education of girl child was about breaking deep rooted culture and norms. To work in such circumstances Animators were hired in this project. Animator are educated girls either from the same community or from same village as an outsider is always on the verge of suspicion so any outsider was avoided. These animators work as change agent in the society. Through various way like public meeting, Nukkad Nattak (street plays), one to one interaction, panchyat meeting they tried to convince parents to get their children admitted to school and avail benefit of RTE. Teacher are also appointed from same community or villages to work in complementary education centres of this project. These animators and teachers worked as role model for the society .It passed a message in the society that if a woman is educated she can become bread winner of the family.

As a girl child supports her mother in household work and take care of siblings it was necessary to convince mothers to set their child free from these responsibility and send them to school Beget of Mata Samiti is to serve this purpose, this was the first time women came out of their houses and formed a group in which they can establish their social contribution. After a long effort women started speaking in public places and persuading other females to send their ward to Schools.

Survey reveals that parents wanted their child to go to school for midday meals. This concept needs to be changed and parents must monitor the progress of their ward. As the male member of the family is the decision maker they were taken into faith and were made members of School Management committee, and for monitoring of Village Education Committee. Onus of one’s child education will regularize the attendance rate of the student.

Complementary Education Centers (CEC): In each village one CEC is established which supports a student with his/her ongoing studies in school which is generally not possible for a student to continue after classes are over as the environment of home does not support this feature due t illiteracy of parents. This centre is run by one trained teacher which help student to understand her lesson in a better way with a creative and better teaching methods. This teacher keeps is a regular monitoring on student through their monthly tests and motivate them to do better in their studies. Around 30 CECs are functional in their respective villages.

Formation of Peer Groups: Students those who are bright in their studies are identified by the teachers and have formed a group called “Roshni Ki Toli” which has not only been established these girls as successful role models in their community but also act as a catalyst for other student in their centres to do good in their studies.

Community Mobilisation and Awareness: This community is in the clutches of social taboos like Gender Discrimination, Child Marriage, illiteracy, lack of basic facilities due to Poverty. In this situation the major concern is to sensitise and build awareness amongst significant stakeholders towards building an environment for education. In this respect, community mobilisation, addressing speeches by community leaders, organizing community functions based on the theme of education, encouraging bright students with some scholarship, celebrating national festivals and Nukkad Nattak (street plays) are taken as effective tool.

Formation of Samities: To involve parents at large and take the ownership of their wards education samities were formed like Mata Samiti and Pita Samiti. Mata Samiti was built with the objective for mothers to participate in their daughter’s education and understand the difference from being illiterate to literate. Mother is the best motivator and guide and they can only build such environment at home, reduce household jobs of their ward and keep a watch on their daughter’s attendance.

Pita Samiti was built with the understanding that the decision making in the family lies with the male counterpart. So, it is very important to convince the males of the family for continuing their daughter’s education.

Strengthening of School Administration: As the provision of government schools is not good in villages so the major concern lies to counsel the school administration and staff to provide all the facilities under RTE Act, 2010 including trained teachers and building their capacities time to time. Strengthening of the implementation mechanism and distribution system of the provisions of RTE. The successful rapport building of the project staff with the local schools has enabled them to keep a tab on the number of Musahar children who are receiving the RTE benefits and to report those cases where they are not.

Formation of School Management Committees and Village Education Committees: This objective intends to give the project staff a backseat and let the community take the steering. Parents being part of SMC and VEC can create pressure on the schools to provide facilities to the student for which they are entitled. These committees can then contact Block Education Officers and District education Officer. Parents of the children are encouraged and motivated to monitor the education status of the children and attend the Parents Teachers’ Meetings. Developing capacity of existing teachers in schools and newly recruited Para-teachers in the communities in order to improve mainstream education and provide effective catch-up training in communities.

Table No. 7

Change in Literacy rate 2001 to 2011

Change in Literacy rate 2001 to 2011

Primary Data of Survey Conducted in the School: A Report

To evaluate the implementation status of RTE Act-2009 in Bihar, Caritas India and People Vigilance Committee for Human Rights (PVCHR) conducted a research study in 32 school of four districts of Biha, i.e., Madhubani, Munger, Patna and Purnia. The Survey format had 68 major questions, which was answered by teachers and was physically verified. Focus group discussion with target community used as a tool to verified the information. State Level and National Level interfaces respectively in Patna & Delhi shaped recommendations of report. This questionnaire was earlier used and developed by PVCHR for CRY Project and VOP in UP. The finding that has come up after the survey of schools in Bihar is stated below:
1. 19 Primary Schools, 05 higher primary school, 08 both type of schools in total 32 schools were surveyed.

2. In which 34% urban area schools and 65% rural area schools were surveyed.

3. Survey has revealed that 8.75% of schools are in Dalit locality, 9.35% of schools are in OBC locality, 12.5% in general locality while rest 59.7% is located in mixed locality. Most shocking fact is that there is no school located in Adivasi locality. This clearly, indicated that more schools are located in mixed locality then OBC and Dalit locality.

4. Geographically, all schools are located in open ground area.

5. From survey we have also received that there are three anganwadi centers is being run under school premises while other 29 anganwadi centres is being rum in different areas and all 03 centers are having their own rooms.

6. It has been revealed by the survey that 32% schools are running in their own building while 6.25% schools are being run on rent while there was no reply for 28.2% schools were being run on own build or were rented.

7. If we look at the condition of celling of principal room and adjoining store room we found that 31.25% schools celling are in good condition, 21.86% schools are in average conditions, 12.5 % schools celling are in damage condition and 6.25% schools are in useless condition and rest, and 28.13% schools have no answer to the question.

8. If we look at the condition of the corridor of the school we found that 37.50% schools corridor are in good condition, 25 % schools corridor are in average conditions, 15.63% schools corridor are in damage condition and 3.12 % schools corridor are in useless condition, rest 18.75 % schools have no answer to the question.

9. If we look at the condition of celling class 1 of school – we found that 43.75% of school class 1 ceiling was in good condition, 25% class 1 celling was in average condition, 9.38% school class 1 ceiling is in damage condition and there was no answer from 21.88 % of schools.

10. If we look at the condition of celling class 2 of the school – we found that 40.63% of school class 2 ceiling was in good condition, 21.87% class 2 celling was in average condition, 12.5 % school class 2 ceiling is in damage condition and there was no answer from 25 % of schools.

11. Similarly, if we look at the condition of celling class 3 of school – we found that 46.88% of school class 3 celling was in good condition, 6.25% class 3 celling was in average condition, 12.5 % school class 3 celling is in damage condition.

12. Similarly the condition of celling class no4 of school – we found that 40.62% of school class 4 celling was in good condition, 9.37% class 4 celling was in average condition, 12.5 % school class 4 celling is in damage condition.

13. The condition of celling class 5 of school – we found that 31.25% of school class 5 celling was in good condition, 6.25% class celling was in average condition, 9.37 % school class 5 celling is in damage condition.

14. The condition of celling class 6 of school – we found that 25% of school class 6 celling was in good condition, 9.37% class celling was in average condition, 3.12 % school class 6 celling is in damage condition.

15. Similarly, the condition of celling class 7 of school – we found that 25% of school class 7 celling was in good condition, 9.37% class celling was in average condition.

16. Similarly, the condition of celling class 8 of school – we found that 25% of school class 8 celling was in good condition, 9.37% class celling was in average condition, 3.12 % school class 8 celling is in damage condition.

17. If we look at the condition of ceiling of kitchen established in the schools we found that

28.12% of school kitchen ceiling is in good condition, 12.5% kitchen celling was in average condition, while 3.12% kitchen ceiling is in damage condition.

18. If we look at the condition of walls of principal room and adjoining store room we found that 31.25% schools walls are in good condition, 15.62% schools walls are in average conditions, 12.5 % schools walls are in damage condition and 3.12% schools walls are in useless.

19. If we look at the condition walls of the corridor of the school we found that 37.50% schools

corridor are in good condition, 21.87 % schools corridor are in average conditions, 12.5% schools corridor are in damage condition and 3.12 % schools corridor are in useless condition.

20. In the same manner the survey shows that is we look at the condition of walls of the school we found that 34.37% walls of class 1 is in good condition , while 21.87% of class 1 walls were in average condition and 15.62% of class 1 wall were in damaged condition.

21. Similarly, the survey shows that the condition of walls in the school of class 2, 31.25 % class2 wall is in good condition, while 21.87% of class 2 walls were in average condition and 12.5% of class 2 walls were in damage condition

22. In the same manner the survey shows that is we look at the condition of walls of the school we found that 34.37% walls of class 3 is in good condition , while 12.5% of class 3 walls were in average condition and 12.5% of class 3 walls were in damage condition.

23. Similarly, the survey shows that is if we look at the condition of walls of the school we found that 31.25% walls of class 4 is in good condition , while 12.5% of class 4 walls were in average condition and 15.62% of class 4 walls were in damage condition.

24. The survey reveals that the condition of walls of 31.25% walls of class 5 is in good condition, while 12.5% of class 5 walls were in average condition and 9.37% of class 5 walls were in damage condition.

25. The survey reveals that the condition of walls of the school we found that 46.15% walls of class 6 is in good condition, while 23.07% of class 6 walls were in average condition and 15.38 % of class 6 walls were in damage condition.

26. The survey reveals that the condition of 46.15% walls of class 7 is in good condition, while 30.76% of class 7 walls were in average condition and 7.69 % of class 7 walls were in damage condition

27. Similarly the survey reveals that the condition of 46.15% walls of class 8 is in good condition, while 12.5% of class 8 walls were in average condition and 6.25 % of class 8 walls were in damage condition.

28. In the similar manner the situation of school kitchen walls can be described as 31.25% school kitchen walls were in good condition, 12.5 school kitchen walls were in average condition an 3.12% school kitchen walls condition were in damage condition.

29. If we look at the condition of school principal room floor condition and adjoining store room floor condition we found that 25% school’s principal room floor are in good condition, 18.75% school’s principal room floor are in average conditions, 15.6 % school’s principal room floor are in damage condition and 3.12% school’s principal room floor are in useless condition .

30. If we look at the condition of the school corridor floor, we found that 32.25% school’s corridor floor is in good condition, while 28.12% school’s corridor floor is in average conditions, 9.37% school’s corridor floor is in damage condition.

31. Similarly, the survey reveals the condition of School class 1 floor -31.25% were in good condition, 18.75% school class 1 floor is in average condition, 12.5% school class 1 floor is in damage condition.

32. Similarly, the survey reveals the condition of School class 2 floor -31.25% were in good condition, 15.62% school class 2 floor is in average condition, 12.5% school class 2 floor is in damage condition.

33. Similarly, the survey reveals the condition of School class 3 floor -28.12% were in good condition, 15.62% school class 3 floor is in average condition, 9.37% school class 3 floor is in damage condition.

34. Similarly, the survey reveals the condition of School class 4 floor -31.25% were in good condition, 12.5 % school class 4 floor is in average condition, 9.37% school class 4 floor is in damage condition

35. Similarly, the survey reveals the condition of School class 5 floor -31.25% were in good condition, 12.5 % school class 5 floor is in average condition, 9.37% school class 5 floor is in damage condition

36. Similarly, the survey reveals the condition of School class 6 floor -15.62% were in good condition, 15.62 % school class 6 floor is in average condition, 3.12% school class 6 floor is in damage condition

37. Similarly, the survey reveals the condition of School class 7 floor -15.62% were in good condition, 15.62 % school class 7 floor is in average condition, 3.12% school class 7 floor is in damage condition

38. Similarly, the survey reveals the condition of School class 8 floor -15.62% were in good condition, 15.62 % school class 8 floor is in average condition, 6.25% school class 8 floor is in damaged condition

39. If we go according to survey we found that school kitchen floor is also defined in same manner. According to survey 31.25% school kitchen floor condition is good, 9.37% school kitchen floor is in average condition and 6.25% of school kitchen floor is in damage condition.

40. If we discuss about the painting of the school walls then according to survey Principal and adjoining store room painting 28.12% school were in good condition, while painting in Principal and adjoining store room 18.75% schools was average and Principal and adjoining store room painting in 12.5% school were in damage condition and only in one school it was useless.

41. If we discuss about the painting of school corridor then we found that in 31.25% school corridor , painting was god, while in 34.37% school’s corridor painting is were in average condition and 6.25% of school’s corridor painting was in damage condition.

42. If we talk about the painting of classes in school we found that in 25 % schools class 1 painting were good, 25% schools class 1 painting were average and in 6.15% school painting of walls were in damage condition.

43. If we talk about the painting of class 2 in school we found that in 37.5 % school’s painting were good, 31.25% schools class 2 painting were average and in 3.12% school’s class 2 painting of walls were in damage condition.

44. If we talk about the painting of class 3 in school we found that in 34.37 % school’s painting were good, 15.62% schools class 3 painting were average and in 3.12% school’s class 3 painting of walls were in damage condition.

45. Similarly, the painting of class 4 painting in schools we found that 31.25% school wall paintings were good, 15.62% school wall paintings were in average condition and 6.25% school wall paintings were in damage conditions.

46. If we talk about the painting of class 5 in school we found that in 31.25 % school’s painting were good, 15.62% schools class 5 painting were average and in 6.25 % schools class 5 painting of walls were in damage condition.

47. If we talk about the painting of class 6 in school we found that in 38.46 % school’s painting were good, 30.76% schools class 6 painting were average and in 7.69% school’s class 6 painting of walls were in damaged condition.

48. If we talk about the painting of class 7 in school we found that in 38.46 % school’s painting were good, 30.76% schools class 6 painting were average and in 7.69% school’s class 6 painting of walls were in damage condition.

49. If we talk about the painting of class 8 in school we found that in 38.46 % school’s painting were good, 30.76% schools class 8 painting were average and in 15.38%% school’s class 8 painting of walls were in damage condition.

50. If we talk about the painting of school kitchen we found that in 31.25 % school’s kitchen painting were good, 6.25% school’s kitchen painting were average and in 9.37%% school’s kitchen painting were in damage condition.

51. According to survey if we talk about boundary wall of wire fencing around 21.78% schools are having good fencing, while 15.62 % school boundary wall fencing s average and 46.87% school boundary wall fencing is in under construction and there is no boundary wall for 46.87% schools.

52. After the analysis of survey it was found that 43.75% of schools are having separate room for class 1 while 31.25% of schools are not having separate rooms for class1.

53. The analysis of survey shows that 46.87% of schools are having separate room for class 2 while 34.37% of schools are not having separate rooms for class2.

54. The analysis of survey shows that 50% of schools are having separate room for class 3 while 31.25% of schools are not having separate rooms for class3.

55. The analysis of survey shows that 40.62% of schools are having separate room for class 4 while 40.62% of schools are not having separate rooms for class4.

56. The analysis of survey shows that 46.87% of schools are having separate room for class 5 while 34.37% of schools are not having separate rooms for class 5.

57. The analysis of survey shows that 34.37% of schools are having separate room for class 6 while 12.5% of schools are not having separate rooms for class 6.

58. The analysis of survey shows that 37.5 % of schools are having separate room for class 7 while 6.25% of schools are not having separate rooms for class 7.

59. The analysis of survey shows that 28.12 % of schools are having separate room for class 8 while 12.5% of schools are not having separate rooms for class 8.

60. The analysis of the survey shows that 75 % of schools are having ramp facility while 12.5 % schools are not having ramp facility.

61. Facilities provided to students class wise in all 32 is stated as:-available for schools furniture facility for class 1 is only available in 12.5% and in 62.5% schools furniture for class 1 is not available. Similarly, if we see the condition of mat provided to students to sit in class in 46.87% school it is available and in 28.12 % schools this facility is not available. In this series, if we see the availability of blackboard in class 1 around 90% schools are having facility of Blackboard in class1. In same manner if we see the pedagogy related material availability for class 1 in 81% school it is available and in 9.37 % school it is not available.

62. Facilities provided to students class wise in all 32 is stated as:-available for schools furniture facility for class 2 is only available in 12.5% and in 65.62% schools furniture for class 2 is not available. Similarly, if we see the condition of mat provided to students to sit in class in 40.62% school it is available and in 34.37 % schools this facility is not available. In this series, if we see the availability of blackboard in class 2 around 84.37% schools are having facility of Blackboard in class 2. In same manner if we see the pedagogy related material availability for class 2 in 75 % school it is available and in 9.37 % school it is not available.

63. Facilities provided to students class wise in all 32 is stated as:-available for schools furniture facility for class 3 is only available in 18.75% and in 59.37% schools furniture for class 3 is not available. Similarly, if we see the condition of mat provided to students to sit in class in 40.62% school it is available and in 34.37 % schools this facility is not available. In this series, if we see the availability of blackboard in class 3 around 75% schools are having facility of Blackboard in class 3 while 9.37% of schools are not having facility of blackboard. In same manner if we see the pedagogy related material availability for class 3 in 68.75 % school it is available and in 12.5 % school it is not available.

64. Facilities provided to students class wise in all 32 is stated as:-available for schools furniture facility for class 4 is only available in 18.75% and in 59.37% schools furniture for class 4 is not available. Similarly, if we see the condition of mat provided to students to sit in class in 34.37% school it is available and in 34.37 % schools this facility is not available. In this series, if we see the availability of blackboard in class 4 around 71.87% schools are having facility of Blackboard in class 4 while 12.5% of schools are not having facility of blackboard. In same manner if we see the pedagogy related material availability for class 4 in 71.87 % school it is available and in 12.5 % school it is not available.

65. Facilities provided to students class wise in all 32 is stated as:-available for schools furniture facility for class 5 is only available in 28.12% and in 53.12% schools furniture for class 5 is not available. Similarly, if we see the condition of mat provided to students to sit in class in 34.37% school it is available and in 34.37 % schools this facility is not available. In this series, if we see the availability of blackboard in class 5 around 68.75% schools are having facility of Blackboard in class 6 while 15.62% of schools are not having facility of blackboard. In same manner if we see the pedagogy related material availability for class 5 in 68.75 % school it is available and in 12.5 % school it is not available.

66. Facilities provided to student’s class wise in all 32 is stated as:-available for schools furniture facility for class 6 is only available in 40.62%. Similarly, if we see the condition of mat provided to students to sit in class in 12.5% school it is available and in 18.75 % schools this facility is not available. In this series, if we see the availability of blackboard in class 6 around 43.75% schools are having facility of Blackboard in class 6. In same manner if we see the pedagogy related material availability for class 6 in 46.87 % school it is available.

67. Facilities provided to student’s class wise in all 32 is stated as:-available for schools furniture facility for class 7 is only available in 45.87%. Similarly, if we see the condition of mat provided to students to sit in class in 9.37% school it is available and in 18.75 % schools this facility is not available. In this series, if we see the availability of blackboard in class 7 around 43.75% schools are having facility of Blackboard in class 7. In same manner if we see the pedagogy related material availability for class 7 in 46.87 % school it is available.

68. Facilities provided to student’s class wise in all 32 is stated as:-available for schools furniture facility for class 8 is only available in 46.87%. Similarly, if we see the condition of mat provided to students to sit in class in 9.37% school it is available and in 18.75 % schools this facility is not available. In this series, if we see the availability of blackboard in class 8 around 18.75% schools are having facility of Blackboard in class 8. In same manner if we see the pedagogy related material availability for class 8 in 40.62 % school it is available.

69. According to the survey of 32 school, distribution of free book of all subject for class 1- in 90% schools books of all subjects have been distributed.

70. In all 32 school work book distribution of class 1 – around 28% of schools have distributed workbooks and 9.37% of schools has not distributed.

71. According to the survey of 32 school, distribution of free book of all subject for class 2- in 78% schools books of all subjects have been distributed.

72. According to the survey of 32 school, distribution of free book of all subject for class 3- in 78% schools books of all subjects have been distributed.

73. According to the survey of 32 school, distribution of free book of all subject for class 4- in 81.25% schools books of all subjects have been distributed

74. According to the survey of 32 school, distribution of free book of all subject for class 5- in 81.25% schools books of all subjects have been distributed

75. According to the survey of 32 school, distribution of free book of all subject for class 6- in 40.62% schools books of all subjects have been distributed

76. According to the survey of 32 school, distribution of free book of all subject for class 7- in 34.37 % schools books of all subjects have been distributed

77. According to the survey of 32 school, distribution of free book of all subject for class 8- in 31.25% schools books of all subjects have been distributed and in 3.12% schools book has not been distributed.

78. It was revealed from survey that in school having student more than 150 only 18.75% schools is having separate principal while 53.12% school this appointment has not been done.

79. Analysis of 32 school survey shows that in only in 25% schools there is staff room and in 75% schools there is no staff room.

80. According to survey of 32 schools the status of science lab- 25% schools are having science lab while 71.87% schools are not having science lab.

81. If we analyze the situation of pedagogy availability in schools we found that in 84.37% school this facility is available and in 9.3% school this is not available.

82. In this survey, the fact came out that out of 32 schools only 25 schools are having directives of education, in 15.62% school it is not available.

83. As it is mandatory for every school to have First Aid kit but only 68.75% of school is having this kit while 28.12% of school is not having such kit.

84. If we look at the availability of library, according to survey 31.25% of school have established library and 65.62% school do not have library.

85. Survey shows that there are 40.62% of school where there is availability of playground for students and in 59.37 % schools there is no availability of playground.

86. If we see the status of availability indoor games for student we found that in 46.87% schools indoor game is available while in 53.12% school this facility is not available.

87. Similarly, if we see the status equipment for outdoor games facility we found that in 15.62% school this equipment is available while in 84.37% school this facility is not available.

88. If we consider computer as a part of modern teaching method this facility is available only in 18.7% schools while, today also this facility is not available in 81.25% of schools.

89. If we talk about open space for assembly in the schools almost 34.37% of schools are having this facility while 62.5% of schools are not having this facility.

90. From survey it is clear that if we talk in terms of availability of books in the school library we found that only 25% of school library is having books and 25% of library is not having books facility.

91. Survey has revealed that there are only 6.25% of schools where there is separate room for library while 87.5% schools are not having separate rooms for library.

92. In addition to this if we see that according to the usefulness there are only 6.25% of schools having such books.

93. Similarly, if we see the availability of relevant book in the library, there are only 21.87% of school is having relevant books.

94. Similarly, only 18.75 % of school library is having dictionary.

95. In the same way, story book, reading materials and other entertainment books facility is available only in 25 % of schools surveyed.

96. Only 12.5 % of school library is having General Knowledge related books.

97. Only 6.25% of school library is having newspaper and magazine facility available.

98. If we talk about drinking water facility 78.12% schools are having own hand pump, 3.12%
schools are having tap water, 6.25% of schools are having community hand pump and 12.5% of schools are having tank water supply which is used for drinking purpose by the students, there are 6.25% of schools which is not having drinking water facility at all.

99. It has been brought into notice that 68.75% of school are having clean drinking water facility while 12.5% schools are not having this facility at all.

100. If we analyze the situation of availability of toilets in school we found that there are 15.62% of schools having o1 toilet, 34.37% of schools having 02 toilets ,15.62% of schools having 03 toilets in school campus ,9.37% of schools having 04 toilets , 6.25% of school having 05 toilets and 9.37% of school having availability 06 toilets.

101. Analyzing the situation of overhead tank above toilet we found that 15.62% of schools are having overhead tank, while 68.75% of schools are not having overhead tanks.

102. According, survey the situation of separate toilet for girls and boys in the school we found that 84.37% of schools are having separate toilets for girls and boys while 9.37% of schools are not having separate toilet facility.

103. If we see the facility of toilet in the school is availed by whom then we found that in 6,25% of schools the toilets are being used by boys while in 9.37% schools toilets are being used by girl’s, out of 32 schools survey 1 school is such where toilet is used by teachers. In 81.25% of school toilet facility is available for all and there is only one school were toilet is not used by any one.

104. Situation of toilet in the school after being used around 59.37% of toilet is in good condition, 9.37% of toilets are in very bad condition while 25% toilets are in good condition

105. If there is availability of Urinal in the premises of school we found that 62.5% of urinal has been constructed in the school premises while 31.25% of school is not having such facility.

106. If we see the condition of urinal available in schools we found that 43.75% urinal are in good condition 3.12% of urinal is in bad condition and 12.5% of urinal are in average condition.

107. If we look at the facility of washing hand near the toilet of the schools, we found that 46.87% of schools are having this facility while 46.87% of schools are not having this facility.

108. During survey a fact shocked us that there is no cleaning staff appointed in approximately 78.5% schools and only 9.37% of schools are having separate cleaning staffs.

109. 75% schools are having Kitchen shed while 18.75% of schools are not having kitchen shed.

110. The survey brought the fact that the 75% kitchen having shed is being used to prepare Mid-Day Meal for students.

111. If we look at the fact that Mid-Day Meal is prepared according to the menu given then we found that in 90.62% schools it is prepared according to the menu while in 3.12% of school it is not prepared according to the menu.

112. If we try to find out who are involved in preparing Mid-Day Meals we found that in 81.25% cases Mid-Day Meals prepared by the cooks, In 18.75% schools teachers provide support in preparing Mid-Day Meals and 3.12% schools community people also help in preparing Mid-Day Meals. The best part is none of the school reported that in cooking Mid-Day Meals students provide support

113. Survey shows that in 78.12% schools Mid-Day Meals are served by the cooks while in 15.62% school teacher support in serving Mid-day meals and in 9.37% of schools students love to serve the meal.

114. If we talk in terms of storage of Mid-Day Meal –we found that in all schools Mid-Day meal storage is done in the school and in all school meals is first tasted by teachers and the served to student.

115. In around 50 % of schools the post of principal is permitted while in 43.75% of school this post is not permitted.

116. If we see the appointment of principal in schools, the 50% schools were the post of principal is permitted at 21.87% post head teacher is appointed while at 34.37% post there is no appointment.

117. From survey it has been revealed that in spite of RTE Act there are only 31.25% of school which ask for Xerox for family register, certificates from ANM, certificate from hospital and certificate of transfer.

118. According to age, for entrance in class 2 or above special training has been provided, the survey showed that in only 3 schools such kind of training has been given and 78.12% school has not been given such training. While for the session 2013 from 7-14 years dropouts students who have been re-enrolled according to their age are 31 in numbers.

119. According to RTE Act and rules of State Education if School Management Committee has been formed, survey reveals that in 2009 only 01 committee, 2011 only 03 committee, 2012 only 01 committee, 2013 only 03 committee, 2014 only 15 committee, 2015 only 02 committee and in 2016 only 01 committee is formed.

120. Survey has revealed that in all the schools were School Management Committee is formed, it has its monthly meeting and necessary follow up is done. It has been physically verified as meeting minutes were available in the schools and 65.62% of committee has also formed school development plans in last session.

121. If we talk about the training of Management Committee at different levels through department, we found that at district level 9.37%, at block level 37.5% at school level 40.62% and no training has been provided at panchayat level. There was no clear reply to the question that after completion of term of 2 years committee was reformed or not?

122. If we talk on the ratio of teacher and student in the school and the ratio should be 35:1. But the actual ratio is 66:1. 274 teachers should be appointed for the 9619 children are enrolled but now only 144 teachers are appointed.

Conclusion

Bihar is a state having saga of education development and prosperity. Learners from different part of country as well as world used to visit the state for their educational purposes. Today, but the situation is reverse. The state having glorious educational past is standing on the last row of literacy rate of the country.

Though State Government and Central Government has initiated lots of schemes and taken step to build a strong pillar of education but all the effort come to the point of enrolling children and maintaining the number of enrollment. Attainment of quality of education has yet not come into the picture. Parents are also interested in the enrollment of ward and getting the entitled benefits they are not at all bothered about the learning of their wards. Illiteracy and social condition of guardians is also one of the reason that they don’t pay heed on quality of education available. Teaching learning methodology of Bihar is considered to be in poor condition .The appointed teachers are either untrained, unskilled or on ad-hoc basis. Their knowledge level of the teachers and availability of teachers are not up to the mark. In the rural area enrollment is just game of numbers, where we find the enrollment rate 94% and above but in reality, primary education students from class 1-5, 41.5 % and 6-8, 57.7 % students rely on tuitions. More than half of the primary students and 8th pass students cannot read books of class 2. According to RTE Act, 2009 to

ensure the quality of primary and secondary education is ouns of State Government but in Bihar there is always a question mark based on the structure, quality and opportunity to avail education. The state is achieving the target of 100% enrollment of children in schools but the level of education is decreasing day by day. This is very much clear from the above analysis. Dropout rates of girls has increased due to lack of toilet facility and lack of serious concern for education. In this center of education all other works are done with full dedication except learning and teaching process. In Bihar, to monitor the teaching and learning quality of primary and secondary school, divisional resource centers were established to work as path paver for school but these centers are not properly functioning.

Recommendations

By passing RTE Act, 2009, Indian government has taken a major step to ensure primary education for all children. Due to lack of good monitoring and accountability the government and school administration is not able to tackle the problem of discrimination, insult faced by students, dropouts and on the verge of school leaving students. Due to all these situation children of underprivileged society is not able access their Right to Education.

For Central Government

For effective implementation of Right to Education Act, 2009 the objective must not only be the enrollment of student in the schools but retention of the students in the school up to the age of 14 years. For this the first and the most important step is to develop a system which will monitor the students from the time of enrolment to class 08 pass. In addition to this there must be a universal procedure which will identify student those who have never been to school, dropouts or are facing problem and verge of leaving school.

The government must have specific yardstick to monitor those students who are facing problem and are not able to complete school education .To develop such procedure which can determine that the concerned officer is in touch with the outcast society and minority society and can monitor students those who are on verge of leaving the school education and also, get dropouts re-enrolled.

The government has to develop such kind of procedure in which it can ensure that the incidences of discrimination does not occur and there must be remedy to solve such cases. National Child Rights Protection Commission must evolve such guidelines in which cases of discrimination and abuse can be settled and disciplinary action can be taken.

Government must direct MHRD to develop such kind of guidelines and rules for their teachers which will help in developing the social harmony and equality behavior .Like involving children from deprived community and caste in such a manner that they participate in different activities and mix up with the children of other communities.

MHRD must be directed in such a manner that it ensures that Rashtriya Adhyapak Siksha Parishad includes the recommendation given by Rashtriya Karyabal based on equality and inclusion in its training material which is used to train its teachers and it must also be used by State Government Sikha Parishad to use in development of curriculum.

To develop such procedure in which different ministry, department through regular meetings exchanges its views and for successful implementation of RTE Act. This will include Education Department, Women and Child Department, SC Department, Human Resource, Social Justice, Minority Department etc. may be involved.

For State Government

For effective implementation of Right to Education Act, 2009 the objective must not only be the enrollment of student in the schools but retention of the students in the school up to the age of 14 years. For this the first and the most important step is to develop a system which will monitor the students from the time of enrolment to class.

Training should be given to teachers, administration of education department, and members of School Management Committee so that they are well equipped to solve the situation where discrimination occurs and can develop a healthy environment for education of students.

Teachers must be encouraged to adopt such kind of teaching methodology which includes more of group work and dialogue delivery involving students of different stratum and culture, so that they can be friendly and develop as whole without the feeling of discrimination.

Access to school education and prohibiting Corporal Punishment will give a new direction to the effort system is taking. This must also include public awareness on Right to Education and were necessary, participation of students must be ensured.

To solve the grievances, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) must start a help line in which violation of RTE and other child abuse cases can be registered and solved. NCPCR should be appoint nodal person for review of RTE Act in state.

To determine that in every school a School Management Committee must be formed which must be trained, maintaining transparency and effective, which can work to ensure participation of students of underprivileged students.

Regular Parents Teacher meetings must be ensured and father, mother must be encouraged to attend this meeting. In this meeting, Panchayat Representatives and members of School Management Committee must be involved.

“Integrated Technology for Education” developed by Tata Trusts in collaboration of many NGOs must be inculcated in school education system.

Human Rights Course must be inculcated in the curriculum of class 6 to 8th.

Teachers must not be involved in non-education work and they must be trained on new methodology of teaching by time and again.

To ensure child participation, teachers must be provided training on the same topic.

State government should be implement innovation concept such as “Roshani initiative” of Caritas to bridge gap between community & school against caste system & patriarchy.

 

Reference

Abul Fazl-i-Alami:Ain–i-Akbari, Volume II, Bibliotheca Indica, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta http://img.asercentre.orgdocsPublicationsASERReportsASER2014BiharPPTsaser2014indiaen glish.pdf http://mhrd.gov.in/hi/mid-day-meal-hindi http://mhrd.gov.in/hi/rte-hindi http://mhrd.gov.in/hi/sarva-shiksha-abhiyan-hindi http://mhrd.gov.inhisitesupload_filesmhrdfilesnas_classVIIIBihar-Report.pdf http://www.bbc.com/hindi/india/2011/07/110705_bihar_education_report_vv.shtml http://www.census2011.co.in/census/state/bihar.html http://www.census2011.co.incensusstatebihar.html http://www.prdbihar.inpdffilesReportCardHindi2015.pdf https://hmakwanasite.wordpress.com/2014/09/2 https://www.facebook.com/alokkumar.shivaventures/posts/428996300523403 P.Ghosh, Prabhat, Kumar, Rana (2011): Elementary Education in Bihar Progress and Challenges, Asian Development Research Institute (ADRI), Patna. Page No. 1,12,13.

Premi Shivpoojan (2014): Students participating in school activities their social, economic and social work interference, research, Samajkarya Vibhag, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidhya Peeth, Varanasi, Page 2.

Annexures

What is ITE?

ITE can be defined as: ITE in student’s curriculum: Inclusion of technology in the curriculum of students in such a manner that the content of the chapter is easier to understand.

“Teaching when fits comfortably with the curriculum of instructional plan of teaching is an indicative of integrated teaching.”

Indicator to integrated techniques is inclusion of technology in the curriculum and pedagogy. Integrate Technique is an additional layers for a teacher to prepare curriculum and lesson plans

Based on this principle teacher prepares plan how to teach students and based on this technology a student’s gains knowledge through learning activity.

This means to develop a topic based on the content of the chapter and then based on the topic prepare IEC activities, which when used will provide full knowledge of the topic.

In this method teacher works as a facilitator and a student uses different application of the computer to collect information related to the topic. In this case technology is used as a tool by the teacher.

Through this method a teacher becomes facilitator and a designer who creates a learning environment for students and promotes students to learn with the technology.

The major content are as below:

Student use of technology to create learning artifacts.

Integrated with curriculum

Focused on learning achievement

Teacher designed instruction

Advantages of ITE based teaching:

Development of good understanding about the topic

Increase in computer skill based on computer activity

Activity based learning increase interest in studies

Increase in interest will increase retention of students

‘Deliberate attempt to deprive minority and underprivileged children of schooling ’

March 31, 2016 in Education, Home Slider, Indian Muslim

By Abdul Bari Masoud, MM,

New Delhi: Despite passing of the Right to Education Act in 2009, the objective of universal right to education for children remains a distant dream as India has the largest number of out-of-school children in the world which is more than the out of school children in whole of sub-Saharan Africa. This fact was underlined at a conference held here on “National Level Interface on “Reality of Implementation of Right to Education Act” on Tuesday.

Lenin Raghuvanshi Secretary General of PVCHR addressing during the conference.

Experts and activists also pointed towards ‘institutionalized discrimination’ in the implementation of the RTE as a result out of the 6.064 million out of school children, a whopping 4.6 million or 76%, belonged to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other religious minorities.

Talking to Muslim Mirror, Lenin Raghuvanshi, who is the Secretary General, alleged that central and state governments are not serious in the implementation of the act. Sharing the findings of the research conducted in the four minority-concentrated districts Purenea, Munger, Madhubani and Patna of Bihar, Lenin Raghuvanshi said there seems to be clear bias on the part of administration as schools were not opened in minority-concentrated neighborhoods.

“It is a deliberate attempt to deprive children belonged to Dalits, tribal and minorities of their constitutional right of getting education. For the last 3,000 years they have been deprived of education. There is a huge disparity between the education level of weaker sections and powerful sections of the society as well as in urban and rural education,” he added.

Specially mentioning the Musahar girls belonged to one of most backward communities in Bihar, he said if given the chance the underprivileged children can also excel in every of walk of life. The issue relates to the absence of equity in education, he said.

Recently at the National Stocktaking Convention on RTE, the Vice President Hamid Ansari also raised the issue of equity in education. He had asserted that inclusive education is inherent in Right to Education and the government must address this issue expeditiously.

“It is said that quantity, quality and equality are the three sides of the triangle required to ensure Right to Education. Without any one of these arms, the triangle will collapse,” Ansari said.

In the conference, Musahar girls presented a stage show, which is written and directed by them based on their daily life facts. One play was based on the theme of dreams and ambition of a girl born and brought in Musahar community called “Mera Sapna.”

On the occasion, a research report titled as “5 Years of Right to Education Act & Grassroots Reality in Bihar” was also released. The report stated, “Due to lack of good monitoring and accountability of government and the school administration is not able to tackle the problem of discrimination, insult faced by the students, drop out and on the verge of school leaving students. Due to all this situation children of underprivileged society is not able access their Right to Education”.

D Syeda Hameed, former Member of Planning commission said the report revealed the alarming condition of the RTE implementation at the grass root level. Especially on the ratio of student and teachers, the ratio of teacher and student in the school and the ratio should be 35:1. But the actual ratio is 66:1.

She also stated that there was no appointment of sweeper in government schools as children spend more time in cleaning the school. She highlighted the deplorable condition of the teaching and learning process. The children of class VIII are unable to read the text book of class II. Because of this, parents do not want to send their children to school. This apathy will result in the closure of the Government school and promotion of the private school. Due to which it will not possible for the marginalized and poor children to get quality education.

It has to be mentioned that one of the most stringent criticisms of the RTE has been the quality of education being provided. The Global Monitoring Report 2012 ranked India a low 102 out of the

120 countries on the Education for All (EFA) Development Index, based on progress in universal primary education, adult literacy, gender parity and the quality of education.

There is a huge disparity between the urban and rural education and rich and poor children have radically different schooling experiences.

In the Panel discussion, John Dayal, Secretary General, All India Christian Council, Ms. Jayshree Bajoria, Researcher, Human Rights Watch, Shantanu Datta, Director Engagement, International Justice Mission, Shimray, Assistant Zonal manager, Caritas India, Ms. Jagmati, All India General Secretary, AIDWA were of view that the government has taken certain initiatives for ensuring the implementation of the Act but failed to make the RTE Act a reality. Presently, less than 10% schools are compliant with all the provisions of the Act, while the deadline for ensuring the complete implementation of the Act has already passed. There is no road- map or time-frame to determine the future of the Act as well as the in the intention of the government.

The NGO Caritas India working in Bihar had jointly organised the conference in collaboration with Peoples’ Vigilance Committee on Human Rights (PVCHR). All the recommendations of the conference are being communicated to NGOs, political parties, Niti Ayog, members of parliament, Ministry of Human Resource Development and policy makers, Lenin said.

Caritas has opened many schools in Bihar for poor children and providing help to madrassas. While the PVCHR is working rigorously in Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand on the issues of Human Rights and Child Rights from last few years. The Organization is also providing training and support to different organizations in 17 states of the country on the issue of Human Rights and Child Rights.

***

Dear Friends,

Due to some avoidable reasons, I’m not able to join you all in this Convention, but we all together are committed to fight for the universalisation of equitable and quality education for all children without any discrimination through the Public Education System. Despite all its limitations, RTE Forum envisages RTE Act 2009 as a step forward to strengthen the public provisioning of education under State obligations.

As you all are aware that, RTE Act, 2009 has now completed six years journey since its enactment on 1st April, 2010. But the objective of universal right to education for children remains a distant dream. While certain initiatives have been taken by the government to ensure the implementation of the Act, broadly, we have failed to make the RTE Act a reality. Presently, less than 10% schools are compliant with all the provisions of the Act, while the deadline for ensuring the complete implementation of the Act has passed. There is no road- map or time-frame to determine the future of the Act as well as the intention of the government.

The Union Budget of 2015-16 saw massive cuts in the overall spending on education as well as SSA allocation. Fifty years ago, the Kothari Commission, 1966 had recommended 6% of GDP allocation to education. Unfortunately, we are yet to cross the 4% mark. Considering the cumulative gap, at least 10% of GDP needs to be spent on education. While the RTE Forum continues to participate in pre-budget consultations organized by the Ministry of Finance, education remains low on the list of priorities of the state. The recent UN call to universalize till higher secondary levels means that the scope of the Act has to be extended to bring children below six and above fourteen within its ambit. However, this will not be possible if spending on education is not increased.

The focus of the government has shifted to the new education policy and the future of the RTE Act remains uncertain. While the RTE Forum has formally submitted its recommendations to the Drafting Committee, new challenges have emerged which threaten the spirit of the RTE Act.

Talks of withdrawal of the no detention policy, recruitment of contractual teachers, large number of teacher vacancies and dysfunctional teacher training institutes are all contributing to the dilution of the spirit and essence of the Act. On the other hand, more than one lakh government schools have been shut down in the last few years, clearly violating the Right to Education- a fundamental right that the state is duty bound to provide.

It’s particularly important to underline the danger that while the state is shrugging away its responsibilities, the private lobby is working overtime, both inside and out of the government- to commercialize school education. Low cost schools providing sub-standard education to the middle income groups have sprung-up across the country. Multinational companies are now coming to India and opening chains of schools (for example, in the state of Andhra Pradesh). PPPs and vouchers are being pushed vigorously instead of concerted efforts to strengthen the public system of education; which continues to educate a majority of the children in this country. Education has been reduced to learning outcomes and the focus has shifted to right to learn instead of right to education. Discussions on broader perspectives and objectives of education have disappeared from the current discourse.

Focusing on these issues RTE Forum has recently conducted its 6th National Stocktaking Convention in Delhi on 21st March, 2016, which was inaugurated by Hon’ble Vice President Sri Hamid Ansari. A Draft Report on the Status of Implementation of the RTE Act, 2009 at national level was also released during the Convention.

I hope that the efforts from different stakeholders including Teachers’ and Students’ organisations, Educationists & Academia, CSOs and NGOs will strengthen our Public Advocacy towards building a sustainable and strong public education system all over the country.

I, on behalf of RTE Forum and its partner organisations, wish the best for a successful Convention being organized by PVCHR and Caritas India.

Ambarish Rai

National Convener, RTE Forum

53, Lodi Estate, New Delhi-110003

***

Indian minorities struggle to educate their children

Despite a national law making school compulsory, survey finds opportunities for Musahars remain woefully inadequate

Girls from the Musahar community listen to the results of a survey that said educational opportunities for their community were woefully inadequate.

Ritu Sharma, New Delhi, India
March 31, 2016

For Kanchan Kumari, it has been a struggle to get enrolled in a school and get a good education.

Belonging to the Musahar community in eastern Indian state of Bihar, Kumari, 15, wants to join the civil services but believes that there are not enough higher education opportunities in her area and also not much motivation from her family to continue her studies.

The Musahars are the most marginalized community in the state and were formerly known as rat catchers. Community members have long abandoned this activity and are now mainly daily wage workers. Nonetheless, they are relegated to the very bottom of the Hindu-based caste system that has dominated Indian society.

“My parents ask me to get married but I want to study. After completing my 10th grade, I will have to move to a city for higher studies and that seems difficult,” Kumari, who lives in Purnia district, told ucanews.com.

She was in New Delhi, along with 16 other girls of the community, to perform a street play highlighting the importance of education and the problem of early marriage, especially among the socially and economically disadvantaged communities of the state.

Indian girls from the Musahar community perform a street play in New Delhi highlighting the need to stay in school. (Photo by Ritu Sharma)

Their social backwardness and poor education have been the concern of aid agencies such as Caritas India, the service arm of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of India.

The poor education system prompted Caritas to join with another agency, the People’s Vigilance Committee on Human Rights, to conduct a survey on how the national law guaranteeing education was being implemented.

The Right to Education Act enacted in 2010 guarantees free and compulsory education of all children up to 14 years. The law also lays down norms and standards relating to pupil-teacher ratio, buildings and infrastructure, and prohibits physical punishment and mental harassment.

The survey results released March 29 found serious violations in implementing the law in socially and economically poor areas. The survey was conducted in 32 schools in the state’s remote areas, covering three rural districts of Munger, Purnia and Madhubani and one urban district of Patna, said Girish Peter, Caritas India’s north zone manager.

“The decision to include the most backward areas in the survey was because there is only 7 percent literacy rate among the Musahars as compared to the national literacy rate of 64 percent, Peter told ucanews.com.

Lenin Raghuvanshi, founder of the human rights committee, said that there have been serious violations of the education law in government schools in Bihar, especially in remote areas.

There is lack of proper infrastructure, especially in Musahar areas, and a lack of qualified, trained teachers, he told ucanews.com.

“Nothing specified in the (law) for bridging the gap between the backward communities and school is being implemented in these schools, Raghuvanshi said.

According to the report, 53 percent of the 32 schools surveyed do not have a principal, 65 percent schools do not have a library and 81 percent do not have a computer facility.

The report revealed that only 8 percent of the schools were in dalit communities while there are no schools in tribal localities.

Peter said that Caritas India has been working for the last three years among the Musahars to motivate community members to educate their children but expressed concern that the sorry state of schools in the area serves as a big discouragement.

“Even if we get to enroll a good number of children in schools, it is difficult to sustain them because of the poor infrastructure of schools, he said, adding that Caritas has been working with the school management to curb the illiteracy rate among the community.

Helping Hand

Nisha Tirkey, who works with Musahars in Purnia, says Caritas field workers identify school dropouts and make sure they start going to school again.

“Their parents are all laborers. At least their generation should get some education and become aware,” Tirkey said.

Mamta Kumari, an eighth-grade student from Purnia, told ucanews.com that she faced stiff opposition from her family for going to school.

“I like studying but my mother was adamant on marrying me. After counseling from the Caritas team and seeing my good marks, she started supporting me,” she said.

Graphs, Tables and Pix sourced by Different Truths from Net

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